FAMILY ROLES AND THE SOCIAL BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN: THE CASE OF SOCIALIZATION AND DELINQUENCY.

Abstract

The overall objective of the study was to examine the relationship between family role and children's social behavior and also to examine the effects of the family as the key factor on juvenile delinquency. This study attempts to explain the effect of family roles on juvenile delinquency. The least amount of communication and roles the family provides, the more likely the child will engage in delinquent activities. Findings suggest that family roles does indeed both negatively and positively play a role in the production of juvenile delinquency. Erratic or poor parental discipline, parental disharmony, parental rejection of the child, low parental involvement with the child, anti social parents and large family were seen to be the key predictors of juvenile delinquency. It was summarized however that poor parental supervision and poor child-family socialization are more likely to lead a child to offend. At the end of the study, it was recommended that family should have an upper hand in the prevention of juvenile delinquency and shaping the child in respect of the society.

1.1 Introduction

Delinquency is a criminal behavior, which is carried out by a juvenile. The term implies a conduct that does not conform to the legal or moral standards of society; it usually applies only to acts that, if performed by an adult, would be termed criminal. It is thus distinguished from a status offense, a term applied in the United States and other national legal systems to acts considered wrongful when committed by a juvenile .


Juvenile delinquency refers to a harmful or illegal acts carried out by adolescents. It is a violent or non violent offence committed by persons who are under the age of eighteen. On the hand, Juvenile Delinquent is one who repeatedly commits crime. These juvenile delinquents sometimes have mental disorders/behavioral issues such as post traumatic stress disorder or bipolar disorder, and are sometimes diagnosed with conduct disorder partially as a result of their delinquent behaviors.

A Juvenile Delinquent is one who repeatedly commits crime. These juvenile delinquents sometimes have mental disorders/behavioral issues such as post traumatic stress disorder or bipolar disorder , and are sometimes diagnosed with conduct disorder partially as a result of their delinquent behaviors.

Delinquency is an increasing social problem in Uganda. According to Uganda police crime report 2005 delinquents were 848; in 2008 delinquents were 2421 and crime report 2009, delinquents were 2245. When these figures are compared, the trend increasing implying that juvenile delinquency in Uganda is still high. Ideally the family plays a pivotal role in socialization of children and it greatly shapes the behaviour of children. Juveniles are more likely to become delinquents if there is little or no socialization.

This study therefore, was intended to investigate how family socialization or lack of it influences juvenile delinquency.­­­

Children often test the limits and boundaries set by their parents and other authority figures. Among adolescents, some rebelliousness and experimentation is common. However, a few children consistently participate in problematic behaviors that negatively affect their family, academic, social, and personal functioning. These children present great concern to parents and the community at large. The prevention of delinquency requires identifying at-risk individuals and their environments before delinquent activity and behavior occur, and then removing such risk factors or strengthening resistance to the risk factors already present. The most logical starting point for prevention efforts is the family.

For many young people today, traditional patterns guiding the relationships and transitions between family, school and work are being challenged. Social relations that ensure a smooth process of socialization are collapsing; lifestyle trajectories are becoming more varied and less predictable. The restructuring of the labor market, the extension of the maturity gap (the period of dependence of young adults on the family) and, arguably, the more limited opportunities to become an independent adult are all changes influencing relationships with family and friends, educational opportunities and choices, labor market participation, leisure activities and lifestyles.

Youths nowadays, regardless of gender, social origin or country of residence, are subject to individual risks but are also being presented with new individual opportunities-some beneficial and some potentially harmful. Quite often, advantage is being taken of illegal opportunities as young people commit various offences, become addicted to drugs, and use violence against their peers.

In Africa, delinquency tends to be attributed primarily to hunger, poverty, mal-nutrition, unemployment and inadequate family involvement in the social set up of their children, which are linked to the "text-align:justify;line-height:150%">The prevention of delinquency requires identifying at-risk individuals and their environments before delinquent activity and behavior occur, and then removing such risk factors or strengthening resistance to the risk factors already present. The most logical starting place for prevention efforts is the family.

In Uganda, there are chances that the family is easily and closely linked with delinquent behavior which becomes initially important when the stress being placed on family functioning is considered, the divorce rate is now about one breakup for every three marriages. The very structure and definition of the family is under going change. The traditional concept of the paternalistic family which there is ale bread winner and a female who cares for the home and children simply is fading away. The majority of mothers of school age children are now employed. Many of the mothers with infants under one year of age are employed outside the home. People are waiting longer to marry and are having fewer children.

Single parent house holders have become common and more unwed mother than ever are deciding to keep and raise their children. These families (break away, single parent families) are problem shaken most especially poverty which is the ' song' of the day. Parents have lost control of the children due to inadequacy in resources to answer financial questions; and even in education. In addition, the quality schools (private) of Uganda may not be accessible or affordable in terms of education fees because of the poverty line while even the free Universal Primary Education (U.P.E) has inadequate quality to shape the children into responsible citizens. The U.P.E (Universal Primary Education) setting has even resulted into more delinquency among the poor children of Uganda.

Sometimes it is geography, rather than finances that helps to determine a child's access to social opportunities. Rural families may have a smaller core group of friends and acquaintances than their urban counterparts. It would seem natural that children who are introduced to not only greater numbers of people during their childhoods, but also people of varied backgrounds would grow to be more adept at understanding and relating well to many different types of people.

Often rigid and controlling, authoritarian parents place high demands on their kids without allowing room for discussion or regard for the child's feelings. This can result in children who are fearful, anxious, frustrated or withdrawn. Favoring supportive discipline, authoritative parents expect good behaviors from their kids, but they gently and lovingly guide them, rather than being forceful or cruel. Kids with authoritative parents are typically self-confident and socially adept.

Extremely lenient, permissive parents allow children to decide for themselves what they feel is appropriate behavior. Unfortunately, these kids often have poor control over their emotions and may have difficulty with peer relationships.

Unlike permissive parents who are involved in their children's lives, neglectful parents place the welfare of their children as a low priority. Children of neglectful parents are frequently emotionally immature and may engage in antisocial behaviors.


Uganda is one of the many countries with high rates of increasing street children. I will talk about street a child for that is where anyone could start from when asked to research about juvenile delinquency. Without knowing if they are delinquent or not one will ask a question as to why they are on the streets. A majority will be led to an assumption that many delinquents come from the streets; but again where do they come from and how? Street children in Uganda are characterized by lack of facilitation or even definite source of income, lack of education, malnutrition, and lack of shelter amongst all. Later on they are forced to try to meet some of the above needs by looking for a source of income or property. This however will result into acquiring the funds in a dirty way through theft, robbery, and pick-pocketing. But who is to blame; in this report I will explain and examine the impact of the family as the root cause of all juvenile delinquency.

1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

1.2.1 Family roles and the children's social behaviour.

Loeber and Stouthamer-Loeber (1986), Family factors as Correlates and Predictors of Juvenile Conduct Problems and Delinquency, Chicago, pp: 29-149, compiled an exhaustive review of family factors as correlates and predictors of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. They found that poor parental supervision, or monitoring, erratic or harsh parental discipline, parental disharmony, parental rejection of the child and low parental involvement with the child (as well as anti social parents and large family size) were all important predictors. However their research rhymes with my findings about the family as the determinant of the good side of the child and the bad side. This gives me a go-ahead to research more on the family and the above for proof about their discussion.

In a study conducted by Wright and Wright in 1994, Family Life, Delinquency, and Crime: A Policymakers Guide. Research Summary. Washington DC, six factors were determined to explain the relationship between single parent families and delinquency. These factors include economic deprivation, reduced supervision, formal controls, and social supports, living in poverty neighborhoods characterized by high crime rates and alienation and lastly an increased criminal justice system response to children from single parent families. They also determined that the absence of fathers increased these factors. Children from both single parent families, as well as those children who live in complex, shifting, and highly stressed families suffer from these same conditions.

It was further discussed that the family is the foundation of human society. Children who are rejected by their parents, who grow up in homes with considerable conflict, or who are inadequately supervised are at the greatest risk of becoming delinquent. Adolescence is a time of expanding vulnerabilities and opportunities that accompany the widening social and geographic exposure to life beyond school or family. It known that the family is the foundation and the basis for a child's behavior good or bad but how does it impact on it so that we can fully agree that the family is the prime defector of a child's behavior. More so, slightly contrary to single family discussion, the blame should not be put only on the single parent families but also the two parent families. In their discussion concentration was put on the single parent families there is a possibility that both families have equally the same impacts on the children's social behavior.

Robins(1979), in her long term follow-up studies in St. Louis, also found that poor supervision and discipline were consistently related to later offending, and Shedler and Block(1990) in San Francisco reported that hostile and rejecting mothers when children were aged 5 predicted frequent drug abuse at age 18.

In Cambridge-Somerville study in Boston, MacCord (1979) reported that poor parental supervision was the best predictor of both violent and property offenders. Parental aggressiveness which included harsh discipline, shading into child abuse at the extreme were significant precursors of violent offenders, while the mother's attitude (passive or rejecting) was a significant precursor of property offenders.

In the Cambridge study, West and Farrington (1973) found that harsh or erratic parental discipline, cruel, passive or neglecting parental attitude, poor supervision, and parental conflict, all measured at age 8, all predicted later juvenile convictions. Farrington (1992d) reported that poor parental child rearing behavior (a combination of discipline, attitude and conflict), poor parental supervision, and low parental interest in education all predicted both convictions and self reported delinquency.

From all the above studies it is evident that from as early as the turn of the century, experts in juvenile delinquency have recognized the family's early and primary role in influencing delinquency.

1.2.2 Family socialization and juvenile delinquency

Understanding the nature of relationships within the family, i.e. family adaptability, cohesion, and satisfaction, provides more information for understanding youth behavior (Cashwell & Vacc 1996). Cohesiveness of the family successfully predicts the frequency of delinquent acts for non-traditional families (Matherne & Thomas 2001). Family behaviors, particularly parental monitoring and disciplining seem to influence association with deviant peers throughout the adolescent period (Cashwell & Vacc 1994).

Juby and Farrington (2001) claim that there are three major theories that explain the relationship between disrupted families and delinquency-trauma theories, life course theories, and selection theories. Trauma theories suggest that the loss of a parent has a damaging effect on children, most commonly because of the effect on attachment to the parent. Life course theories focus on separation as a long drawn out process rather than a discrete event, and on the effects of multiple stressors typically associated with separation. Selection theories argue that disrupted families are associated with delinquency because of pre-existing differences in family income or child rearing methods.

Broken homes and early separations are also risk factors for offending. Broken homes in the Newcastle thousand family study, Kolvin et al (1990) reported that parental divorce and separations up to age 5 predicted later convictions up to age 33. McCord (1991) carried out the study of the relationship between homes broken by the loss of the natural father and later serious offending. She found that the prevalence of offending was high for boys reared in broken homes without affectionate mothers(62%) and for those reared in the united homes characterized by parental conflict(52%) irrespective of whether they had affectionate mothers.

The importance of the cause of the broken homes is also shown in the British National longitudinal survey of over 5000 children born in one week of 1946 (Wadsworth 1979). Boys from homes broken by divorce or separation had an increased likelihood of bearing convicted or officially cautioned up to age 21 in comparison with those from homes broken by deaths or from un broken homes. Remarriage (which happened more often after divorce or separation than after death was associated with an increased risk of offending.

However, one will assume a thorough research and study without looking at both sides of the research; a question is still pending of whether all juveniles are only boys hence creating a gender bias. Wadsworth 1979 made a thorough study on the boys in the broken homes yet when one critically studies the present world, everyone' young or old male or female is exposed to crime. This leads to an assumption that the number of male offenders might tally will that of female offenders. Research has to be carried out again to encompass both sexes for both female and male is prone to delinquency; after that the reader will be comfortable with the study.

In a study conducted by Stouthamer-Loeber, it was determined, in longitudinal studies that socialization factors such as lack of supervision, parental rejection of the child, child rejection of the parent and lack of parent/child involvement were found to be the strongest indicators of delinquency. Parental dysfunction, such as criminality, substance abusers and poor marital relations were mid-level predictors and parental health and actual absence of parent were weak predictors. In concurrent comparative studies, the strongest correlate of problem behaviors in children were the child's rejection of the parents and the parental rejection of the child. The importance of effective parental discipline was higher in the comparative studies than in the longitudinal studies. The overall effect of these risk factors appeared to be the same for both boys and girls. What needs to be addressed in this case is the parental rejection of their children rather than children's rejection of their parents as the one of the family causes of delinquency.

Poor parental disciplining for example beating instead of punishing and poor child-parental ties predict a child's future behavior for these lose a child's vigor with their parents; in the end they happen to live as enemies under the same. The children living under the fear and the aggressiveness from their parents make them migrate away from their homes to solicit for places of comfort. This study will further study this factor and how it influencing today's societies in Uganda.

Criminal, anti-social, and alcoholic parents also tend to have delinquent sons, as Robins 1979 found. For example in her follow-up study of over 200 black males in St. Louis (Robins et al 1975), arrested parents tended to have arrested children, and the juvenile records of records and children showed similar rates and types of offences. McCord 1977 with her 30 years follow-up study of about 250 boys in the treatment group of the Cambridge-Somerville study reported that convicted fathers tended to have convicted sons. Whether there is a specific relationship in her study between types of conviction of parents and children is not clear.

Experts concluded that family dysfunction and poor parental supervision and socialization are major influences on children's subsequent delinquency. The family is thus the most natural environment for human development but it is however important not to over-idealize the former, at least in its assumed traditional stable form, since it now seems to be in crisis, as can be seen from statistics worldwide (Bernard van Leer Foundation, 1984). For instance, "In the family system of every human society, incomplete families emerge due to various reasons - demographic, economic or social: such as the death or divorce of a spouse, partition of the family, or migration" (UNESCO, 1991, P. 11).

It is unfortunate that the society did not take action on these earlier findings, thus it has only been recently that the impact of family factors has received much attention or research funding. The implications of existing research are that the family environment can either protect children from subsequent delinquency or put them at greater risk. It is predicted, that depending on the level of functioning, families can negatively impact a child's development.

1.3 Methodology

The study took the design of a case study. It was chosen because it enables the researcher a feel of real life context using multiple sources of information. The design allows for in depth investigation of small samples or narrow topics. It helped to limit the researcher's source of information and study. The study area was Naguru Remand Home, Kampala Uganda because it is known for keeping juveniles which is the focus group in this study.

The population for this study included 20 randomly selected juveniles and one administrator of Naguru remand home. To acquire data about the research topic, oral interview method was used because it gives immediate feedback from the correspondent.

Data was analyzed qualitatively and this was to find out its validity and reliability.

1.4 Family Roles and Children's Social Behaviour

In this section, the findings of the study and the analysis or the discussion were presented. It also shows the summery of the data that was collected from the respondents putting into mind the objectives of the study and the research topic at large.

The findings from this research relied on two objectives; examining the relationship between family role and children's social behavior; and to examine family socialization as an influence of juvenile delinquency which the research will handle one by one. There were twenty respondents in all; 10 males and 10 females. Most of the children in the remand home come from broken families; others are orphaned while others got stranded in the City when they came from their villages to look for relatives they never found. In the end in one-way or another they joined the wrong group and ended up in the remand home.

Defilement (having underage sex), together with murder and robbery are the capital offences most of the boys at Naguru are charged with. Of the twenty children surveyed, 6 experienced some type of violence in the home, 4 had been in fights, 2 drank alcohol, 3 smoked marijuana, one tried harder drugs, and 4 had stolen either monetary or material goods. Half the adolescents surveyed spent less than twenty hours a week with their family. Those individuals that smoked marijuana and drank said they felt like they did not have a very open relationship with their parents or guardians.

The use of quantitative statistical analysis revealed the following significant relationships between family role and children's (2) The moral socialization of juvenile delinquents is undertaken more by others than their biological parents; (3) 50% of the delinquent children interviewed come from the lowest socio-economic stratum of society; (4) 10% of the juvenile delinquents come from homes where 7 persons and above live under the same roof; (5) 10% of the parents of our respondents have low paid jobs which keep them for long periods away from their children.

A growing number of parents need additional socio-economic support, development of vital skills of responsible parenting, in order to adequately manage periods of rapid social change and simultaneous multidimensional challenges. The living situation varied from child to child; 3 lived with biological mother and father, 1 with just mother, 2 with father, 3 with biological mother and stepfather, 6 with biological father and stepmother, 2 with their foster parents and 3 with some other guardian.

When asked about their behavior and addictions it was found out that the students that drank alcohol spent little time with their family and had very little parental supervision. Those same drinkers also smoked marijuana. It was also noticed that most of the drinkers, smokers, and fighters came from two parent households, broken marriages, conflicted parents, criminal parents; whereby these households provided minimal supervision and spent little time with the adolescent.

1.4.1 Discussion

It was found out that inconsistent parental discipline and poor supervision is relayed to delinquent behavior. There is evidence that families who use harsh and inconsistent discipline also experience additional social problems related to delinquency such as parental substance abuse and deviance. For instance Fred Mukwaya when asked how landed into the remand home, he claimed that he was picked up from the streets after receiving death threats from his step mother. Youths who believe that their parents are aware and interested in their activities and companions and will closely supervise them and punish their misdeeds will be less likely to engage in criminal acts than those youths who believe that their antisocial behavior goes unnoticed. It was also found out that children are more likely to be deterred by fear of parental disapproval than by the threat of legal sanctions. In sum there is significant evidence that consistent discipline and close supervision are related to conventional behavior patterns in youths while inconsistent and limited supervision is a strong predictor of delinquent behavior.

This research revealed that children who receive adequate parental supervision are less likely to engage in criminal activities. Dysfunctional family settings-characterized by conflict, inadequate parental control, weak internal linkages and integration, and premature autonomy-are closely associated with juvenile delinquency. Children in disadvantaged families that have few opportunities for legitimate employment and face a higher risk of social exclusion are overrepresented among offenders. The plight of ethnic minorities and migrants, including displaced persons and refugees in certain parts of the world, is especially distressing. The countries in transition are facing particular challenges in this respect, with the associated insecurity and turmoil contributing to an increase in the numbers of children and juveniles neglected by their parents and suffering abuse and violence at home.

Parental failure to provide their children with "starting" opportunities (including the resources to buy books and manuals and pay for studies) forces many juveniles to delinquency. Adolescents from low-income families often feel excluded. To raise their self-esteem and improve their status they may choose to join a juvenile delinquent group. These groups provide equal opportunities to everyone, favorably distinguishing themselves from school and family, where positions of authority are occupied by adults.

Further more, the increasing number of children placed into foster care by single mothers who are unable to provide for their care, children born addicted to crack and taken away from their mothers, children born infected with the HIV virus who demand more care than their mothers are able to provide for them and those children who are actually homeless due to any number of conditions predict delinquency. These children are at an even greater risk for delinquency. Children have the right to have both parents actively involved in all aspects of their lives. They have the right for parents to sit civilly at the dinner table and ask about their day. They have a right for respect and decency and they have a right to not be victimized by those people who chose to bring them into this world. They have a right to be able to learn respect for other people, respect for authority and respect for themselves. Children have a right to effective parenting.

1.5 Family Socialization

When young people are exposed to the influence of adult offenders they have the opportunity to study delinquent behavior, and the possibility of their engaging in adult crime becomes more real. The "criminalization" of the family also has an impact on the choice of delinquent trajectories. A study carried out in prisons in the Kampala reveals that families involved in criminal activities tend to push their younger members towards violating the law. More than two-thirds of those interviewed had relatives who were incarcerated; for 25 per cent it was a father and for another 25 per cent a brother or sister. Mores so, the juveniles who were interviewed; one who tried harder drugs and those of theft cases had their parents as drug addicts and thieves which gave a great influence on juvenile delinquency.

Changes in Family Structure and Functioning - The prevalence of divorce and the increasing number of women in the workplace have reduced the number of adults who provide interaction, structure and supervision in a child's life. For instance, of the children interviewed, 9 children had their parents working with good jobs; 2 had their parents as civil engineers, 1 as nurse, 4 with parents who worked in NGOs (non government organizations and the rest had their parents as doctors. All these were full time workers in the places of work. Along with this, institutions have not kept pace in providing alternative programs for unsupervised kids. Add to this new parenting expectations that come with single parent and step-parent families and you now have a confusing, often inconsistent and/or unreliable home base for children.

Given that three (3) of delinquents interviewed are from single parent households, delinquency is fostered by a lack of parental/juvenile interaction. Monitoring the child is also a major contribution towards the creation of delinquency. By spending time with a juvenile as a family through family activities, it not only provides that necessary supervision for being aware of the whereabouts of the child, how the child is functioning emotionally and how he or she is doing as an adolescent, it creates positive interaction with the parents that is needed for a healthy upbringing.

Children, regardless of whether they are a product of a single parent or dual parent household, are more likely to become juvenile delinquents if there is a minimum amount of quality time spent with the guardians. Guardians actually need to be "parents" rather than just provide for the child. "Parents" provide structure which entails rules, encouragement, and any type of consistent adult behavior that a juvenile can use as guidelines throughout his or her own adolescent years.

When interviewed, it was found out that nine children came from broken homes, that is; three lived with biological mother with step father and six lived with biological father and step mother. This was also noted to have an influence on juvenile delinquency. The connection seems self evident, since a child is first socialized at home and from the beginning learns appropriate behavior, values, and beliefs from parents. Any disjunction in an orderly family structure should have a negative impact on the child's life. Family break-up increases an effected adolescent's experience with such delinquency-promoting factors as greater autonomy. Despite the strong hypothetical case linking broken homes to delinquency, the bulk of empirical research on the matter has been inconclusive. In addition to broken and disrupted homes, a number of other family factors have been related to the onset delinquent behavior;

More so this research found out that when children reach adolescence, conflict between parents and teens normally increases as teens need to distance themselves from parental identity to establish their own identity. The authoritarian parent tends to emphasize rules and very harsh consequences. There is little room for discussion or negotiation. The indulgent parent tends to spoil the child and expects little or no responsibility at home, choosing instead to clean up after the child both at home and in his social misbehavior. The indifferent parent is so preoccupied with his/her own life and activities that little time and energy is given to either involvement or appropriate structure.

The type of parenting that does work is simply called authoritative parenting. This type of parent assumes a role of authority in the child's life, but the rules and structure are sensible and flexible to accommodate the child's growth toward adolescence and young adulthood. The parent's intelligent explanations of the rules plus reasonable enforcement help to maintain a steady reduction of control as the child matures.

It was found out that children need a warm, close, supportive relationship with their parents. Youths who lack closeness with fathers or mothers or perceive a lack of family cohesiveness are more likely to engage in delinquent acts and status offences. It is closeness to the mother and the father that regulates delinquent activity. Both parents and children have independent impressions of family attachment and that perceived detachment from either party can be used to predict delinquent behavior. A stable unbroken home characterized by loving, supportive parent-child relationships will help insulate a youngster from delinquency.

The quality of family life, including attachment to parents, and discipline, are far more important predictors of delinquent or conforming behavior than measures of family structure(such as absent parents, large families or family income). While negative parent-child relationships are generally associated with delinquency, it is difficult to assess the direction the relationship takes. While it is often assumed that pre-existing family problems cause delinquency, it may also be true that acting-out children put enormous stress on the family, causing the problem to occur. In other words the behavior of parents influences the behavior of children, which in turn influences the behavior of parents, and on and on in an endless loop.

Parents of beyond control youngsters have been found to be inconsistent rule-setters, less likely to praise, encourage and show interest in their children, and display high levels of hostile detachment. For instance 40% of the children interviewed had had quarrels a number of times with their parents and guardians and others spend a long time without talking to their parents due to lack of corporation in between.

1.6 Conclusion

In summary, family factors which greatly have an influence on offending include; the level of parental supervision , the way parents discipline a child, parental conflict or separation , criminal parents or siblings, and the quality of the parent-child relationship Children brought up by lone parents are more likely to start offending than those who live with two natural parents, however once the attachment a child feels towards their parent(s) and the level of parental supervision are taken into account, children in single parent families are no more likely to offend than others. Conflict between a child's parents is also much more closely linked to offending than being raised by a lone parent.

If a child has low parental supervision they are much more likely to offend. Many studies have found a strong correlation between a lack of supervision and offending, and it appears to be the most important family influence on offending according to my survey. When parents commonly do not know where their children are, what their activities are, or who their friends are, children are more likely to truant from school and have delinquent friends, each of which are linked to offending. A lack of supervision is connected to poor relationships between children and parents, as children who are often in conflict with their parents may be less willing to discuss their activities with them. Children with a weak attachment to their parents are more likely to offend.

In conclusion, therefore, there are many causes of juvenile delinquency, like financial influence, peer influence, hard punishment in school however, the most important cause and one that needs to be addressed and corrected is the breakdown of families. Parents who care responsibly for their children will help them avoid the other causes of delinquency. These parents will restrict their access to media violence, monitor their peer groups, explain and inform them of the negative effects of substance abuse, prevent their access to firearms, provide them with a stable family life, free of violence, discipline them with love and consistency and most importantly, teach them the basic values of life - respect for others, respect for authority and respect for themselves.

1.7 Recommendations

According to the research results, special attention must be given to street children and to children and adolescents who have lost their families (or their ties to them) and have thus had no appropriate family surveillance. The majority of programs serving street children are remedial in nature, as they operate on an adhoc basis, providing food, clothing and occasionally shelter and health services. These initiatives, which provide symptomatic treatment, have to be complemented by programs that also address the causes of street children.

Parents should put more effort to ensure that their children are adequately provided for and morally groomed. This call to question the issue and justification for family planning which among other objectives seeks to ensure that parents only give birth to children they can comfortably cater for.

Intensive workshops and seminars should be regularly organized for those formative adolescents to keep driving home to them the dangers of anti social behaviours. Proper guidance and counseling should always be given to them at and in school by those qualified and recruited to such a high responsibility.

However strict penalties should be meted to offenders to act as a deterrent to other adolescents who may be nurturing the intention to engage in such anti social behaviours.

There should be a step taken by concerned bodies; for example Save The Child Uganda, UNICEF, Child Fund in improving the health care for families. A number of delinquent cases arise due to psychological illnesses brought poor health care. It is the responsibility of the parents therefore to protect children against thus.

The Ministry Of Health under the Government of Uganda should establish day care centers to promote good health and education for preschool children. This gives or improves and hardens/ strengthens a child's foundation free of anti-social behavior. Day care centers help also to occupy idle children who would have resorted to delinquency or unwanted behavior.

Comments: 27

Sent by: Bwebare Nicholas | Tuesday, 4 September 2012 10:55:09 GMT

 Bravo. Impressed by the information. It was great and helped me alot in my research. Thumbs up Cissy.

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